christchurch earthquake sequence

Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple earthquakes Recordings from 20 strong motion stations across Christchurch in multiple earthquakes … [256][257][260] It is predicted that the people who are displaced experience the worst of the damage, and therefore the reported levels of PTSD and depression are often lower than they would have been had the displaced citizens been available to collect data from. The total number of claims for the two events was expected to be 250,000, as Brownlee explained that many of the claims were "overlapping". The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence began with the 4 September 2010 M w7.1 Darfield earthquake and included up to ten events that induced liquefaction (Quigley et al. The crew of the Navy ship Canterbury, in Lyttelton harbour at the time of the earthquake, provided meals for 1,000 people left homeless in that town,[151] and accommodation for a small number of locals. A decision was made to remove the dome because the supporting structure was weakened. [16], The current New Zealand building code requires a building with a 50-year design life to withstand predicted loads of a 500-year event. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. [260] People who exhibit lower mental health prior to the trauma don't adapt as well following trauma, and show higher levels of PTSD. [178], Sixty-six Japanese USAR members and three specialist search and rescue dogs arrived in Christchurch within two days of the February earthquake. Within two hours of the quake national co-ordination was operating from the National Crisis Management Centre located in the basement of the Beehive in Wellington.[119]. The proposals were heavily criticised for relying on incorrect information,[218] leading one school, Phillipstown Primary, to seek a judicial review over its proposed merger with Woolston Primary. [238], In October 2008, the population of the Christchurch main urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, had for the first time exceeded the Wellington equivalent (at 386,100 versus 386,000), which made Christchurch the second largest city in New Zealand (after Auckland). [49] In the central city, two buses were crushed by falling buildings. A Mw6.2 (ML6.3) earthquake occurred in Christchurch on Tuesday 22 February 2011[2] at 12:51 p.m. local time[9] (23:51 UTC, 21 February). In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. The February 2011 magnitude 6.2 Christchurch earthquake was triggered by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake five months earlier. Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. Each individual can react differently to traumatic events, and more research needs to be done to learn how to predict vulnerability and access the effects to find solutions that work best. A (M) 6.3 earthquake (the Christchurch Earthquake) occurred on 22 February 2011. [125], Gerry Brownlee, a Cabinet Minister, had his regular portfolios distributed amongst other cabinet ministers so that he could focus solely on earthquake recovery.[126]. [133] They were aided by DVI teams from Australia, UK, Thailand[134] Taiwan and Israel.[133]. [99], In contrast to the September 2010 earthquake, Redcliffs and the surrounding hills suffered severe damage. [69] Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral. As per the protocols of New Zealand's Coordinated Incident Management System, the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act, and the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan and Guide, Civil Defence Emergency Management became lead agency—with the Director of the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management John Hamilton as National Controller. New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system. [30], The earthquake was a "strike-slip event with oblique motion" which caused mostly horizontal movement with some vertical movement,[16] with reverse thrust causing upwards vertical movement. [136] On 1 March, it was announced that the New South Wales Government would be donating A$1 million (NZ$1.3 million[175]) to the victims of the Christchurch earthquake. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. The station collapsed on 13 June 2011 after a magnitude 6.0 aftershock. [7] In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). This fault line crosses through the South Island of New Zealand. [124] Meanwhile, the Canterbury CDEM Group ECC had relocated to the fully operational University of Canterbury Innovation (UCi3) building to the West of the city, when the Copthorne Hotel adjacent to the Regional Council offices threatened to fall onto the offices and ECC. [137][150], The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch. [108], The earthquake combined with the urgency created by the unseasonably early break-up of sea ice on the Ross Ice Shelf caused logistical problems with the return of Antarctic summer season research operations from Scott Base and McMurdo Station in Antarctica to Christchurch. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … Regional … [258][262] Those with relatively high exposure to earthquake damage show an increase in positive effects, including an increase in personal strength, growth in social relationships, the bringing of families closer, and realizing what's important in life. [236] Much of the NZ$90 million cost of the 2011 census was written off. [252], In January 2013 Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee said repairs to damaged homes to date had totalled more than $1 billion. [23] This is the highest PGA ever recorded in New Zealand; the highest reading during the September 2010 event was 1.26g, recorded near Darfield. The surrounding districts, Selwyn and Waimakariri, have two of the three highest growth rates in New Zealand, at 2.2% and 1.6%, respectively. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. ... We will be doing everything we can to work with our New Zealand family, with Prime Minister Key and his emergency services personnel, his military officers, his medical people, his search and rescue teams. [33] Geologists reported liquefaction was worse than the 2010 earthquake.[16]. Prior to the 2010 quake, the EQC had a fund of NZ$5.93 billion according to the EQC 2010 Annual Report, with NZ$4.43 billion left prior to the 2011 quake, after taking off the NZ$1.5 billion cost. Wanaka Primary School alone had received 115 new enrolments as Christchurch families moved to their holiday homes in the town.[212]. Christchurch's strongest local earthquake in more than a year may have been generated by the same fault that caused the damaging Boxing Day quake in 2010. Greater Christchurch Group has released its Whole of Government report on the lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence. [11][12] According to GNS Science seismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to a magnitude 6.7 earthquake. The Christchurch earthquake in September the 4th 2010 and its aftershocks were caused by plate tectonics such as these, the two plates involved collided in an transverse collision. [137] The United States sent Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2, a 74-member heavy rescue team consisting of firefighters and paramedics from the Los Angeles County Fire Department, doctors, engineers and 26 tons of pre-packaged rescue equipment. [DOI: 10.1193/030113EQS060M] INTRODUCTION The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. These insurers underwrite their commercial losses to reinsurers, who will again bear the brunt of these claims. The Commission examined issues with specific reference to the Canterbury Television (CTV), Pyne Gould Corporation (PGC), Forsyth Barr and Hotel Grand Chancellor buildings. [210][211] Some students relocated to other centres – by 5 March, a total of 4879 Christchurch students had enrolled in other schools across New Zealand. The February earthquake occurred during lunchtime on a weekday when the CBD was busy, and many buildings were already weakened from the previous quakes. [193], A national memorial service was held on 18 March at North Hagley Park, coinciding with a one-off provincial holiday for Canterbury, which required the passing of the Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011 to legislate. It was followed by a large aftershock on 13 June (which caused considerable additional damage) and a series of large shocks on 23 December 2011. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. [87] Concrete block construction fared badly, leaving many modern iconic buildings damaged. The epicentre was closer to Christchurch, and shallower at 5 kilometres (3 mi) underground, whereas the September quake was measured at 10 kilometres (6 mi) deep. [237], In the year to June 2011, the population of Christchurch had fallen by 8,900 people or 2.4% of its population, with a historic annual population growth of 1%. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. [170] Portable shower units were also established in the eastern suburbs. The M 6.3 mainshock and a couple of other events in the aftershock sequence are reverse (thrust) faulting mechanisms. A composite "Christchurch Response Centre" was established in the Christchurch Art Gallery, a modern earthquake-resilient building in the centre of the city which had sustained only minor damage. He added that the thoughts and prayers of the Commonwealth were with the citizens of New Zealand, and Christchurch especially. However, most notably, widespread liquefaction was induced by the M w7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield and the M w6.2, 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquakes. [202], With an estimated 10,000 houses requiring demolition and over 100,000 damaged,[203] plans were developed for moderate-term temporary housing. [197] Australia's official delegation included Governor-General Quentin Bryce, Prime Minister Julia Gillard, and Opposition Leader Tony Abbott.[198]. The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts. It was preceded by a magnitude 5.6 tremor, and affected many structures previously damaged by other earthquakes. (Read more in the press release). [172], Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard on the earthquake. Official visitation teams were organised by Civil Defence and there were engineers or assessors from EQC. The Department of Building and Housing also released a plan for the construction of 500 modular homes. In September 2012, Minister of Education Hekia Parata announced plans to permanently close and/or merge a number of schools due to falling roll numbers and quake damage. [177] Kamalesh Sharma, Commonwealth Secretary-General, sent a message of support to the Prime Minister and stated "our heart and condolences go immediately to the bereaved." New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. [47] Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, and water and sand were spewing out of cracks. [63], The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. [160] Power had been restored to 82% of households within five days,[161] and to 95% within two weeks. [262] Depressive symptoms before a disaster can predict higher chances of developing PTSD following a trauma. Location of the 12:51pm quake epicentre within Christchurch. The humble domestic concrete slab is a very important component in getting things right first time. Initial reports by GNS Science suggested that ground motion "considerably exceeded even 2500-year design motions",[32] beyond maximum considered events (MCE). Prospective predictors of short-term adjustment after the Canterbury earthquakes: Personality and depression. [206], Canterbury University partially reopened on 14 March 2011, with many lectures held in tents and marquees while work was carried out on university buildings. The earthquake injured a total of 46 people, while … [219] The plans were confirmed in February 2013, with seven schools closing, 10 schools merging into five (not including the overturned Phillipstown-Woolston merger), and three high schools taking on additional year levels. [20], GNS Science stated that the earthquake arose from the rupture of an 8 km x 8 km fault running east-northeast at a depth of 1–2 km beneath the southern edge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and dipping southwards at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal beneath the Port Hills. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. [121] A full response management structure was put in place within minutes of the quake, with the Christchurch City Council's alternate Emergency Operations Centre re-established in the City Art Gallery and the regional Canterbury CDEM Group Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) activated in its post-earthquake operational facility adjacent to the Canterbury Regional Council offices. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. [162] Electricity distribution operator Orion later stated the power outages caused by the earthquake added to 3261 SAIDI minutes, or equivalent to the entire city being without power for 54 hours and 21 minutes. [82][83], The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament was also severely damaged, with the towers falling. [163], On the day of the earthquake, Prime Minister John Key said that 22 February, "...may well be New Zealand's darkest day",[164] and Mayor of Christchurch Bob Parker warned that New Zealanders are "going to be presented with statistics that are going to be bleak". Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. [114] September 4th Earthquake 2010. [102], Redcliffs Primary School, then located at 140 Main Road, right under the cliffs, was moved to Van Asch Deaf Education Centre, 4.5 km from the main site soon afterwards. Community connection, can aide in helping the community heal as a Whole were grateful that they did have! Raise money for recovery efforts construction was faulty and should not have been aftershock! [ 55 ] as of February 2015, there had been constructed in 1963–1964 magnitude Christchurch... [ 183 ] Twenty Chinese students were reported in the badly affected eastern suburbs placed a... 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